Ruler V3:
FEATURED OPTICS

Grating 532nm-Prism Array- 650nm

The grating - prism array - grating optic demonstrates some of the similarities and differences between diffraction (from the gratings) and refraction (from the prism array). The prism array refracts light perpendicularly incident on the back of the ruler by ~1°, more or less independently of wavelength, and refracts all the light into one spot. By contrast, each wavelength-specific grating diffracts most of the light at the design wavelength perpendicularly incident on the back of the ruler into the first diffraction order at 1°, but does not work in quite the same way with a different wavelength. The grooves of the prism array are much wider and much deeper than those of the blazed gratings.

532nm grating period: 37.2μm; Prism array period: 1.0mm; 650nm grating period: 30.5μm;
Blaze angle and apex angle: 2°

Crossed-Cylindrical Lens

This light-shaping lens requires sharp corners to shape an incident collimated beam into a precise square or rectangular output.

f/1 Cylindrical Fresnel Lens

18 mm diameter and focal length

f/1 (Round) Fresnel Lens

18 mm diameter and focal length

Use a flashlight or other large-ish partially collimated beam to investigate the different behavior of cylindrical vs round Fresnel lenses. Note the linear output of the Cylindrical Fresnel lens and the spot resultant from use of a round Fresnel lens.

View all four rulers
IMG_5928 - main ruler 3 image_edit
DSCN0736 - grating prism_edit
IMG_5937 - pyramidal_edit
IMG_5968 - cylindrical-round Fresnels_edit